The fluorescence of live murine melanoma cells was monitored and quantified for 2 h during incubation with 260 M of Rb44L1 and Rb29L1. and PARP, upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, altogether resulting in intrinsic apoptosis of melanoma cells. The inhibition of angiogenesis HOI-07 was also an Rb44 effect. Peritumoral injection of Rb44L1 delayed growth of subcutaneously grafted melanoma cells in a syngeneic mouse model. L1-CDRs from immunoglobulins and their interactions with tubulin-dimers were explored to interpret effects on microtubule stability. The opening motion of tubulin monomers allowed for efficient L1-CDR docking, impairment of dimer formation and microtubule dissociation. We conclude that Rb44 VL-CDR1 is a novel peptide that acts on melanoma microtubule network causing cell apoptosis and melanoma growth inhibition including cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion, induction of apoptosis, disruption of cytoskeleton IL23R antibody dynamics (22C28), and many HOI-07 others. We have previously described a novel bioactive mAb VL CDR 1 peptide (C36L1), displaying and anti-tumor activities. HOI-07 Depolymerization of microtubules, leading to cytotoxic and cytostatic effects mediated by Rho-GTPase, PTEN, and PI3K/Akt signaling, have been characterized (26). Presently, we investigated a VL CDR1-derived synthetic peptide, Rb44, expressed in a anti-Lewis B monoclonal antibody, focusing on structural, biological and molecular docking properties, in comparison with two other VL CDR1 peptides (Rb29L1 and C36L1), to understand the mechanism of action of Ig-CDR derived, apoptotic peptides targeting microtubules. Rb44L1 exerted both and anti-melanoma activities and inhibited endothelial cell sprouting Cell Death Detection Kit according with the manufacture’s instruction (Roche Applied Science, Madison, WI). B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells (1 104) were seeded on 96-well clear-bottom black polystyrene microplate and incubated with 0, 130 and 260 M of Rb44L1 peptide for 18 h. After incubation, cells were fixed in formaldehyde 2% for 20 min at room temperature, washed in PBS, and incubated with Hoechst 33342 (Invitrogen, Eugene, OR), at 10 g/mL final concentration in the reaction buffer and TUNEL enzymatic substrate. Cells were washed and images were acquired and analyzed in a Cytell Cell image cytometer (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK). Annexin V and Propidium Iodide Labeling B16F10-Nex2 cells (5 105) were cultured in 6-well plates and further incubated with Rb44L1 at 0, 80 and 100 M for 18 h at 37C. After incubation, the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was used and cells labeled with propidium iodide (PI) and FITC annexin V (AV) were analyzed by flow cytometry (BD Bioscience FACSCanto II equipment, Franklin Lakes, NJ), using FlowJo software (TreeStar Inc., Ashland, OR). Cell Cycle Analysis B16F10-Nex2 (5 105) cells were seeded in conical centrifugation tubes and incubated with 65 M Rb44L1 peptide for 16 h in suspension. After incubation, the cells were washed with PBS and fixed in ethanol 70% for 1 h at 4C. Cells were then washed again with PBS and stained with propidium iodide (PI) solution (50 g/ml PI, 0.1 mg/ml RNAse A) for 20 min at 4C in the dark. DNA fluorescence staining was acquired by FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). FlowJo software (Tree Star Inc., Ashland, OR) was used for post-acquisition analysis (20.000 events per sample). The microtubule depolymerizing CA4 (combretastatin A4, Sigma-Adrich, St. Louis, MO) was used at 75 M as positive control of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Transmission Electron Microscopy B16F10-Nex2 cells (1 106) were seeded in 6-well plates. Cells were then incubated with peptide Rb44L1 at 260 M for 18 h at 37C. Fixation, dehydration and staining of the samples were performed as previously described (23). Jeol 1200 EXII electron microscope (Tokyo, Japan) was used for image acquisition. Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (m) B16F10-Nex2 cells (1 104) were pre-incubated with the cationic lipophilic dye tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) at 20 nM for 30 min, and then with peptide Rb44L1 at 0, 130, and 260 M for 6 h..