Les niveaux de sroprvalence taient significativement diffrents entre certaines des rgions tudies, ainsi quentre les chiens errants (13,6?%) et les chiens de chasse (1,7?%). dogs. chez 441 chiens en provenance des cinq rgions du Portugal continental. Un test commercial dimmuno-absorption enzymatique (+)-Corynoline par comptition (cELISA) a t utilis et des anticorps spcifiques ont t dtects dans 35 (7,9?%) des chiens. Les niveaux de sroprvalence taient significativement diffrents entre certaines des rgions tudies, ainsi quentre les chiens errants (13,6?%) et les chiens de chasse (1,7?%). La diffrence entre la sropositivit des chiens prsentant des signes musculo-squelettiques ou neurologiques (21,4?%) et des animaux sans signes cliniques compatibles avec la nosporose (5,6?%) tait (+)-Corynoline proche de la signification statistique. Cette tude est le premier rapport sur la sroprvalence de chez les chiens au Portugal. La nosporose doit tre considre dans le diagnostic diffrentiel de dsordres neurologiques des chiens. Introduction Dubey has been confirmed as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy herds in the North of Portugal [4, 12]. Rabbit Polyclonal to p70 S6 Kinase beta In serosurveys carried out in Holstein-Friesian cows in the Northern and Central regions of the country, seroprevalence was found to range from 28% in a random sample of dairy cattle to 46% in dairy herds with a history of abortion [3]. In Portugal, has also been isolated from the faeces of a stray dog in the southern Algarve region [2]. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of antibodies to in dogs countrywide, and to assess risk factors associated with infection or exposure in this host species, contributing to a better understanding of its epidemiology in Portugal. Material and methods From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 441 dogs from the five statistical regions of mainland Portugal were sampled in veterinary medical centres (388 domestic animals) and shelters (53 stray animals) and available data on correlates of infection were collected (Table 1). Dogs were randomly included after owners or legal holders informed consent. Stray animals had been housed to be sterilised for population control or to be given for adoption. This study was ethically approved by the ethical committee of the Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro as complying with the Portuguese legislation for the protection of animals (Law 92/1995). Table 1. Prevalence of antibodies to in dogs from Portugal as determined by a competitive ELISA. = 0.016?North88 (20.0)10.2a 4.8C18.5?Centre83 (18.8)1.2a,b,c 0.03C6.5?Alentejo110 (24.9)5.5d 2.0C11.5?Lisbon80 (18.1)15.0b,d 8.0C24.7?Algarve80 (18.1)8.8c 3.6C17.2Gender430 = 0.555 ?Female211 (49.1)7.14.0C11.4?Male219 (50.9)9.15.7C13.7Breed426 = (+)-Corynoline 0.151?Pure256 (60.1)6.33.6C9.9?Mongrel170 (39.9)10.66.4C16.2Age (months)409 = 0.312?[2C11]32 (7.8)12.53.5C29.0?[12C204]377 (92.2)7.75.2C10.9Main aptitude319ND?Pet115 (36.1)7.03.1C13.2?Hunting59 (18.5)1.7e 0.04C9.1?Stray59 (18.5)13.6e 6.0C25.0?Guard and watch44 (13.8)11.43.8C24.6?Farm and pastoral21 (6.6)4.80.6C16.2Habitat359 = 0.745?Urban132 (36.8)6.83.2C12.5?Rural227 (63.2)8.45.1C12.8Housing419 = 0.137?Totally indoors36 (8.6)0.00.0C9.7?In- and outdoors157 (37.5)10.25.9C16.0?Totally outdoors226 (53.9)8.45.1C12.8Contact with other animals405 = 0.254?No98 (24.2)5.11.7C11.5?Yes307 (75.8)9.46.4C13.3Food264 = 0.257?Strictly commercial127 (48.1)3.91.3C8.9?Including or strictly home-prepared 137 (51.9)8.04.1C13.9Compatible clinical signs284 = 0.050?Absent270 (95.1)5.63.1C9.0?Present* 14 (4.9)21.44.7C50.8Total4417.95.4C10.6 Open in a separate window a in serum samples according to the manufacturers instructions (VMRD, Pullman, WA, USA). Positive and negative control samples were provided in the kit. The percentage of inhibition (% I) was obtained by the formula: % I?=?100???[(sample OD??100)/mean negative control OD]. When % was equal to or more than 30%, the sample was considered positive. Based on published data, the cELISA results correlated well with the indirect fluorescent antibody test [7, 8]. The exact binomial test was used to calculate confidence intervals (CI) for the proportions, with a 95% confidence level. The chi-square and Fishers exact tests compared proportions of seropositivity to (no. of positive dogs/no. of dogs tested). A were detected in 35 (7.9%) out of the 441 dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions (Table 1): the seroprevalence in dogs (+)-Corynoline living in the Lisbon region was significantly higher than that in the Central and Alentejo regions, while seroprevalence in animals in the North and the Algarve was significantly higher than in those in the Centre. Seroprevalence in stray dogs was significantly higher than in hunting dogs (Table 1). No statistical differences were found among the other independent variables/categories evaluated. However, the difference between seropositivity in dogs without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) and that in animals presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) was very close to statistical significance (in dogs in Portugal. A review of infections in dogs worldwide revealed that among the risk factors, the lifestyle and age of the dogs were the most (+)-Corynoline important. In fact, infection levels were higher in strays versus pets and in older versus young dogs [7, 8]. The higher prevalences documented in older dogs suggest most of them become infected after birth. In the present study, as well as in some.