In general, these studies focus on the induction of prolonged neutralizing antibodies during vaccination, while the contribution of T-cell responses is not frequently addressed. Natural Infection of Coronavirus Strains Exposure to SARS and MERS coronaviruses can also shed light on the possible mechanisms of protection. strains. Nevertheless, the knowledge obtained from Rabbit Polyclonal to DDX51 the vaccine development efforts for MERS and SARS can be of high value for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Here, we review the past and ongoing vaccine development efforts for clinically relevant coronavirus strains with the intention that this information helps in the development of effective and safe vaccines for COVID-19. In addition, information from naturally exposed individuals and animal models to coronavirus strains is usually explained for the same purpose of helping into the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. [1, 2]. These are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. Their genome NH2-PEG3-C1-Boc size is usually relatively large for RNA viruses, between 27 and 34 kB [3]. Coronaviruses NH2-PEG3-C1-Boc infect mammals and birds causing varied symptoms such as respiratory tract disease and diarrhea. In humans, coronavirus infections have been shown to be potentially lethal. This is the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses. In 2002C2003, the world experienced what would become the first of a series of lethal coronavirus infections. The disease denominated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) would be characterized by high fever, eventually developing into shortness of breath and pneumonia [4]. Originating in southern China, the disease later would cause 8096 cases, resulting in 774 deaths in 26 countries [5]. Despite efforts from the scientific community, no vaccine became commercially available and SARS cases ceased to be reported from 2004 [4]. In September 2012, the world experienced the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. Originated in Saudi Arabia, the infectious disease is usually characterized by moderate respiratory symptoms, but these could develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome and death [6]. The disease has affected 27 countries, resulting in 2494 cases and 858 deaths [7]. MERS cases are still being reported but no major outbreak has been declared since 2015 [8]. As in the case of SARS, no commercial vaccine is usually available for MERS. Reasons for the lack of commercial and effective vaccines for SARS and MERS are varied. In the case of MERS, it is likely that this vaccine development was delayed because of the scarcity of suitable and cost-effective small animal models during pre-clinical experimentation. In addition, it is probable that a vaccine has not been delivered because of the low desire for investing in a vaccine for a disease that has produced relatively low and geographically centralized cases (compared with other more global and prolonged infectious diseases such as influenza, HIV and tuberculosis). This last factor might have also contributed to the lack of a vaccine for SARS, in the sense that it was considered pointless to continue investing in a vaccine for a disease whose cases ceased to be reported in 2004. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually a current pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first cases were reported NH2-PEG3-C1-Boc from Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [9, 10]. According to the World Health NH2-PEG3-C1-Boc Business (WHO), the disease has been reported in 213 countries and territories as of April 11, 2020, with evidence of ongoing local transmission [11]. According to the same business, you will find 1,669,595 confirmed cases and 106,138 deaths associated with the disease. Symptoms of COVID-19 are moderate and include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Nevertheless, the disease might progress into severe pneumonia NH2-PEG3-C1-Boc and multi-organ failure predominantly in elders and people with other underlying diseases [9, 12]. Although no vaccines are commercially available for SARS and MERS, recent and current vaccine development efforts against these diseases might be of high value for the development of an effective vaccine for COVID-19. The present review aims to describe these efforts. Furthermore, we describe the possible implications of creating an effective.